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Bacteria and viruses are the most common cause of food poisoning. The symptoms and severity of food poisoning vary, depending on which bacteria or virus has contaminated the food.

Food Safety : Bacteria and viruses

Bacteria and viruses are the most common cause of food poisoning. The symptoms and severity of food poisoning vary, depending on which bacteria or virus has contaminated the food. Visit and and review the common bacterial and viral causes of food poisoning. – discuss one of the six common bacterial or viral causes of food poisoning identified (salmonella, norovirus, campylobacter, E.coli, listeria, clostridium perfringens) their causes/food sources, prevalence (both in the US and outside the US), symptoms, treatment and prevention. – must be a minimum of 300 words in length and include two (2) valid references [textbook, nutrition journal article, or nutrition professional website] in APA format. Nutrition journal articles must be: (1) Less than 5 years old and (2) A minimum of two [2] pages in length. Afterwards, respond to the following posts that I have added below question with meaningful feedback (avoid responses which state “I agree” or “me too”). Responses to these must be a minimum of 100 words in length and include one [1] valid reference in APA format. Post #1 Norovirus is a common and highly contagious virus affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Many people refer to it as the “stomach flu,” and the virus sickens more than 5.5 million people each year in the United States. (Grosvenor and Smolin, 2015) Norovirus also affects people outside of the United States with it, “estimated that norovirus leads to more than 200,000 deaths per year in developing countries. In the United States, fewer than 800 people die from norovirus most years, and most of these deaths occur in young children or elderly people.” (Odle, 2018) There are many types of norovirus and repeat infections are possible. Getting the virus once does not cause immunity. (Odle, 2018) Norovirus is found in human and animal feces and is spread through contact with a contaminated surface or contaminated food. (Odle, 2018) The most common transmission is through food preparation and service with one study finding 82% of examined outbreaks linked to improper food handling. (Grosvenor and Smolin, 2015) Norovirus can spread quickly in areas where many people are in a small area and outbreaks do occur in places like restaurants, cruise ships and nursing homes. (Grosvenor and Smolin, 2015) In order to prevent Norovirus it is imperative to wash hands with soap and water often. Always rinse fruits and vegetables and properly cook foods which destroys the virus. (Odle, 2018) If a person becomes infected with norovirus symptoms, “includes diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Some people also have a fever with headache or body aches.” (Odle, 2018) Symptoms begin within 12-48 hours of exposure to the virus and last 1-3 days however they can persist up to 6 days. (Odle, 2018) The best treatment for norovirus is drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Antibiotics will not ease symptoms as norovirus is not a bacteria. (Odle, 2018) Odle, T. G., BA., ELS. (2018). Norovirus. In D. S. Hiam (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Emerging Diseases (pp. 308-310). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from

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