BA (Hons) in HRM Strategy &amp Practise

 

Economic and Social Policy

Lecture 11: The Housing Sector ? Overview

References:

Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government (2016) Action Plan for Housing ? Rebuilding Ireland, Dublin

Housing Agency, (2015), National Statement of Housing Supply and Demand 2014 and Outlook for 2015-17, Dublin

Housing Agency, (2016), Housing for Older People ? Thinking Ahead, Dublin
(Research Report by Am?rach Research, Ronan Lyons, Lorcan Sirr and Innovation Delivery, Commissioned by the Ireland Smart Ageing Exchange & the Housing Agency)

Some useful data and information sources:
Central Statistics Office
Residential Tenancies Board (RTB)
Property Price Register
Banking and Payments Federation, Ireland
Housing Agency
Society of Chartered Surveyors
Daft.ie
MyHome.ie

1. Introduction

? Housing is very much in the news again

? It was a contributor to the banking crash in 2008 as prices rose, borrowers overextended themselves and banks over-lent

? It was (and is still ?) an important and challenging public policy issue as the level of mortgage arrears and negative equity increased

? Now it?s back in the news due to

o Rising prices

? Affordability

o Rising rents

o A supply shortage

o A growing problem of homelessness
2. Economic and Social Dimension

? Housing policy/market has both economic and social dimensions
o Economic
? important sector in terms of jobs
? can be important source of taxation for government
? need for supporting environmental infrastructure => water, waste, transport => cost to state
? developer contributions
? residential prices (purchase and rent) impact wage levels and in turn competitiveness
? use of available funds
? supply side ? developers, builders
? demand side ? buyers, investors
? part of the wider investment market (e.g. buy-to-let)
? often a pension asset
? opportunity for significant capital gain
? very significant expenditure by individuals
? long term commitment if purchasing
? issue of affordability
? capital
? current

o Social
? need for accommodation
? purchase
? private rented
? social rented
? need for proper standards
? issue of safety e.g. fire safety
? location => commuting times => impact on families
? provision of supporting social infrastructure => education, health, leisure
? desire for home ownership
? but growth of private rented sector
? security of tenure is key issue
? re-emergence of issue of homelessness, especially in cities
? serious social issue

3. Supply dynamics

? Lags in supply

? Relationship with planning and zoning policies

? Price elasticity of supply is low in short run

? This means prices can rise very quickly if demand increases

? Danger of cyclicality in industry and repeated imbalances of supply and demand

? Mix of units required => houses vs apartments, sizes,

? Capacity of building industry

4. Demand dynamics

? Demographics

o including headship rates

? Availability of finance

o bank lending policy

o Central Bank policy (current mortgage lending restrictions)

? Cost of finance

? Incomes

? Job security

? Price expectation is key factor

5. Current situation

? Recovering economy

o increased demand

? Rising house prices (see table at end of lecture notes)

o Note: CSO Index is most appropriate as it is mix-adjusted, based on transactions. MyHome.ie also has mix-adjusted barometer, but based on asking prices.

? Rising rents (see table at end of lecture notes)

o recent decision by Government to limit rent increases to every two years

o good or bad idea ?

? Affordability now an issue

? Mortgage arrears remains a problem

? Limited supply

o was 93,000 at peak

o 12,700 approx. 2015

? Supply/demand imbalance

? Central Bank lending restrictions (maximum LTV 80%/90%, maximum LTI 3.5 times,) have curbed demand somewhat

6. Supply Requirement and future policy

? Despite some slowdown in demand, supply needs to be increased

? Housing Agency estimated that 21,000 units per annum were required up to 2017, double the current level. More recent estimate suggest it could be as high as 42,000 p.a. up to 2018 (DKM/CIF October 2016)

? Mix of owner-occupation and investor demand

? Private rented sector will continue to grow => investor demand

o up from 10% of dwellings in 2006 to 20% in 2011 (Not available yet for 2016 Census)

o but still remains a short-term tenure type for most renters

o only 17% intend renting long-term

o this is different to tradition in many European countries where long-term renting is a well-established tenure type

? Increased need for social housing

o but reduction in social housing budget of two-thirds from 2008 ? 2014

? Homelessness

o Difficult to quantify but growing problem

? Vacant site levy

o annual rate of 3% of market value of site => not until 2019

o aimed at ?forcing? more efficient use of economic resource

? Revision to Part V of Planning and Development Act 2000

o cash in lieu option discontinued

o social housing element now at 20% of units

7. Budget 2016

A number of initiatives were taken in Budget 2016 in relation to the housing sector

? Incentive for FTB?s, tax rebate of 5% up to ?20,000
o Up to ?400,000 (with extention to ?600,000)
o New build only
o Is it inflationary ? is it in effect a builder?s grant ?

? Rent-a-room tax incentives increased => impact on rental market

8. Housing for the Elderly
Housing Agency Research Report published October 2106 (see reference above)
Key questions:
? 1 What are the current and future housing requirements and aspirations of Ireland?s older citizens and how do they differ from the broader population?

? 2. What models of supported housing / independent living with care might best address these requirements and aspirations?

? 3. What policy structures are required to meet these needs and wants in a financially and demographically sustainable way?

? 4. What are the likely policy implementation blockages and how might these be overcome?

? 5. What would be the broader economic and social impact of a well-planned national Supported Housing Initiative?

Key Findings:
? Many older people want to age in place.
?
? But the link may be stronger to the community rather than the actual house. More than 50% of older people when surveyed said that staying in their local community was the key reason for staying in their current home.
?
? At the same time, more than 20% said that the type of house they lived in negatively impacted ?a lot? on their ease of living. This would show an opportunity for more ?age appropriate? housing within existing communities, of living in the same area but in a different home.
?
? The report demonstrates the importance of greater public awareness of planning ahead and avoiding having to make critical decisions following a crisis.
?
? The supply of an appropriate mix of accommodation in communities is key to providing greater choice and independence to older people.

? More needs to be done to achieve this ? building smaller ?age-friendly? accommodation in mixed communities.

? There is potentially a market for up to 100,000 step-down homes in Ireland, which represents ?25bn worth of unmet need.

? If provided, these new homes would also free-up housing equivalent to at least six years supply for first-time buyers.

? Being able to adapt and change our homes to make them more appropriate to our needs as we age (for example, to widen doorways, accessible bathrooms and toilets, extra storage) will have clear benefits in extending people?s independence.

? This is also a relatively untapped market for the construction industry.

? More people are now renting their home long-term, and this trend is likely to continue. The implications of this need to be considered in more detail, particularly: how does the rental sector need to respond to this change (in terms of supply, design, cost, security of tenure, for example) and what will be the implications for the financing of long-term care.

? Following on from the above, State schemes such as the Fair Deal Scheme are designed and budgeted by the state around the premise that some of its costs will be recoverable through the housing asset of the person receiving care.

? Older people are also now increasingly comfortable with technology and it is becoming more user-friendly ? its potential to extend independence requires on-going development and testing.

Source: Residential Property Price Index, CSO, latest available

Source: The RTB Rent Index, Quarter 2 2016, ESRI, latest available

Criteria Weight Proposal 1 Proposal 2 Proposal 3 Proposal 4 Proposal 5
% Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score
A 14% 80 11.2 30 4.2 90 12.6 20 2.8 90 12.6
B 7% 90 6.3 80 5.6 80 5.6 40 2.8 100 7.0
C 8% 70 5.6 90 7.2 65 5.2 50 4.0 75 6.0
D 13% 75 9.8 90 11.7 30 3.9 60 7.8 80 10.4
E 5% 40 2.0 80 4.0 80 4.0 30 1.5 75 3.8
F 17% 35 6.0 65 11.1 90 15.3 35 6.0 45 7.7
G 3% 60 1.8 80 2.4 40 1.2 75 2.3 85 2.6
H 15% 50 7.5 65 9.8 70 10.5 25 3.8 75 11.3
I 10% 20 2.0 40 4.0 80 8.0 20 2.0 35 3.5
J 8% 40 3.2 70 5.6 65 5.2 40 3.2 60 4.8
—— —— —— —— —— ——
Total 100% 55.3 65.5 71.5 36.1 69.5
Rank 4 3 1 5 2

Contents
FOREWORD BY AN TAOISEACH …………………………………………………………………… 5
FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER ………………………………………………………………………. 6
OVERVIEW OF THE ACTION PLAN ………………………………………………………………… 8
Why we need an Action Plan for Housing and Homelessness ………………………………………………….. 8
Core Objectives of the Plan ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Key Action Areas ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Five Key Pillars of the Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12
Pathfinders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….16
CONTEXT FOR THIS ACTION PLAN FOR HOUSING AND HOMELESSNESS ………….19
Housing and Wider Public Policy ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19
Housing Challenges ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
Housing Supply Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………29
PILLAR 1: ADDRESS HOMELESSNESS ……………………………………………………………..33
Addressing homelessness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
Homeless households …………………………………………………………………………………………………….34
Moving families out of hotels …………………………………………………………………………………………34
Rapid-Build housing………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35
Housing Assistance Payment for homeless households ………………………………………………..35
Supports for families with children………………………………………………………………………………….35
Homeless individuals and Housing First ………………………………………………………………………….36
Emergency shelters ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
Homelessness prevention keeping people in their own homes ……………………………………………..38
Young people leaving State care …………………………………………………………………………………38
Preventing homelessness for other vulnerable groups …………………………………………………38
Tenancy sustainment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..38
Rent Supplement/Housing Assistance Payment …………………………………………………………..38
Mortgage arrears …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
Mortgage Arrears Resolution Service …………………………………………………………………………….41
National information campaign ……………………………………………………………………………………41
Preparation of draft legisation……………………………………………………………………………………….41
Code of Conduct on Mortgage Arrears ……………………………………………………………………….41
Mortgage to Rent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

PILLAR 2: ACCELERATE SOCIAL HOUSING …………………………………………………….43
Increasing and Accelerating Social Housing Delivery ………………………………………………………………44
Our Programmes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46
Accelerated Roll-out of the Housing Assistance Payment (HAP) Scheme ………………………………48
New Delivery Mechanisms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………49
NTMA/Private Sector Housing Fund ……………………………………………………………………………….49
Housing Agency acquisitions …………………………………………………………………………………………50
Part V delivery ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
Mixed-Tenure development on State lands and other lands ………………………………………50
Vacant Housing Repair and Leasing Initiative ………………………………………………………………51
Innovations to improve, support and accelerate delivery ……………………………………………………….51
Housing Delivery Office ………………………………………………………………………………………………….51
Housing Procurement Unit ……………………………………………………………………………………………..51
Accelerating social housing approval processes …………………………………………………………51
Streamlining Part 8 planning processes for LA and AHB housing projects …………………..52
Supporting Approved Housing Bodies to deliver ………………………………………………………….52
Housing for specific groups ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Older people ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….53
People with a disability…………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
Traveller specific accommodation ……………………………………………………………………………….55
Irish Refugee Protection Programme …………………………………………………………………………….55
PILLAR 3: BUILD MORE HOMES …………………………………………………………………….57
Land Supply Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58
Supporting Infrastructure Investment …………………………………………………………………………………………59
Local Infrastructure Housing Activation Fund (LIHAF) …………………………………………………..60
NTMA funding of large infrastructure Supporting Housing Infrastructure Investment ..61
Planning Reforms ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..61
Streamlining planning processes for larger private housing developments ………………..62
Investment in re-using or converting urban commercial developments …………………….63
Wider Planning Reforms …………………………………………………………………………………………………63
National Planning Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………………………63
Costs of Delivering New Homes …………………………………………………………………………………………………64
Land costs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………65
Construction costs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
Construction Sector Capacity and Skills ……………………………………………………………………………………66

PILLAR 4: IMPROVE THE RENTAL SECTOR……………………………………………………….69
Rental Strategy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..70
Early Legislative Actions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
Standards in Rental Accommodation ……………………………………………………………………………………….71
Role of the Residential Tenancies Board ……………………………………………………………………………………72
Encouragement of build-to-rent sector ……………………………………………………………………………………. 72
Affordable Rental ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
Student Accommodation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
PILLAR 5: UTILISE EXISTING HOUSING ……………………………………………………………77
Social Housing Stock …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..78
Better Management of Social Housing Stock ……………………………………………………………….78
Choice-Based Letting …………………………………………………………………………………………………….79
Review of Tenant (Incremental) Purchase Scheme …………………………………………………….79
Private Sector Housing Stock ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..80
Housing Agency Vacant Housing Purchasing Initiative ………………………………………………..80
Vacant Housing Repair and Leasing Initiative ………………………………………………………………80
Removing Regulatory Barriers to Re-Use ……………………………………………………………………….81
Urban Regeneration ………………………………………………………………………………………………………81
Living City Initiative …………………………………………………………………………………………………………82
Village and Rural Renewal …………………………………………………………………………………………….82
Unfinished Estates …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..83
GLOSSARY OF TERMS …………………………………………………………………………………84
APPENDIX 1: TABLE OF ACTIONS …………………………………………………………………86
APPENDIX 2: RESPONSE TO KEY RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE OIREACHTAS
COMMITTEE ON HOUSING AND HOMELESSNESS …………………….106
APPENDIX 3: SUMMARY OF PROPOSED LEGISLATIVE CHANGES …………………..111
APPENDIX 4: THE NATIONAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK (NPF) ………………………..113
5
Foreword by An Taoiseach
In forming the current Government, I was determined that the housing challenge was going
to be addressed fully and finally which is why it was positioned as a key objective in the
Programme for a Partnership Government.
The publication of this Action Plan on Housing and Homelessness, well within the timeframe of
100 days set out in the Government Programme, underpins our commitment to end the
housing shortage and to tackle homelessness.
Ireland has been here before in terms of needing to provide good quality housing to meet our
people?s needs. In the past, we showed ourselves to be capable of rising to the challenge
and I am committed to ensuring that we will do so again, in a manner that delivers strong,
sustainable communities.
This Plan sets out a clear roadmap to achieve the Government?s goals to significantly increase
and expedite the delivery of social housing units, boost private housing construction, improve
the rental market, and deliver on the commitment to see housing supply, in overall terms,
increase to some 25,000 new homes every year by 2020.
Ending rough sleeping and the use of unsuitable long-term emergency accommodation,
including hotels and B&Bs, for homeless families, are key priorities that take precedence within
the Plan.
The range of actions set out in the Plan is ambitious, both in the scale of investment of some
?5.5 billion in social housing and housing infrastructure, but also in its pursuit of appropriate
reform, acknowledging the need for new thinking if we are going to deliver the kind of housing
that people want, in the right places and in a manner that they can afford.
Just as the drafting of this Action Plan has been a collaborative process involving a wide range
of interests, so too will its implementation rely on all stakeholders, including Government
departments, local authorities, housing agencies, voluntary bodies, and the construction
sector, to achieve its ambitious goals.
In order to ensure its success, the key targets of this Action Plan will be subject to regular
Cabinet review. The Cabinet Committee on Housing, which I chair, will actively oversee its
implementation.
This is a cross-Government plan, which also stretches beyond into the local government and
voluntary sectors. I am committed to ensuring that it results in us achieving our critical national
ambition of ensuring that all of our people have access to quality and affordable housing,
either through their own endeavours or with the support of the State.
An Taoiseach,
Enda Kenny, T.D.
July 2016
6
Foreword by the Minister
I was appointed as Minister with specific responsibility for Housing, Planning, Community and
Local Government to focus intensively on the challenge of tackling the housing crisis.
The Government?s mission is to ensure that everyone can access a home, either on their own
or with State support. We are determined to deal with the dramatic under-supply of housing
and the problems it generates for families and communities.
I have described the problems faced by our people, particularly in our urban centres, as an
emergency situation. None of us can fail to be moved by the plight of people who are
homeless, especially families and children living in hotels, and people who are sleeping on our
streets.
These are particularly visible examples of our broken housing sector, but no less urgent are the
challenges faced by households who face the loss of the home they currently live in, or the
lives kept on hold as people struggle to access the housing and rental market.
Rebuilding Ireland, an Action Plan for Housing and Homelessness, comprises five pillars of
concerted actions right across Government ? addressing homelessness, accelerating social
housing, building more homes, improving the rental sector and utilising existing housing.
A key priority is addressing the unacceptable level of homeless families and long-term
homeless people in emergency accommodation, by providing rapid-delivery housing,
alongside measures to support those at risk of losing their homes.
A truly ambitious social housing programme of 47,000 units to 2021 will be delivered with
funding of ?5.35 billion.
We have also put in place a ?200m Infrastructure Fund to open up large sites where homes
are needed and where homes are now going to be built.
In addition, we have increased the levels of Rent Supplement and the Housing Assistance
Payment to give people, who need it most, more security to remain in their homes.
The output of private housing will increase, by enhancing the viability of construction, in order
to double the completion level of additional homes in the next four years to deliver the 25,000
homes or more we need annually.
We will develop a strategy for a viable, sustainable and affordable rental sector, with early
legislative actions to protect tenants and landlords.
We will also ensure that available existing housing is used to the maximum degree possible.
Achieving these goals will rebuild Ireland in a way that affects every aspect of our lives. Good
housing anchors strong communities, a performing economy and an environment of quality.
7
This Plan will be driven by the Government in a way that will be visible, tangible and totally
focused around results on the ground ? more homes, at an affordable price, in the places
where they are needed and a reduction in the numbers of homeless people in hotels and
emergency accommodation.
The publication of this Plan is only the beginning and the implementation has already started.
I am establishing a special Housing Delivery Office within my Department which will play a key
role in the implementation of this Plan. There will also be a new Housing Procurement Unit in
the Housing Agency and the role of local authorities and Approved Housing Bodies will be
critical. So that the Plan?s delivery is grounded in reality, I am establishing a Stakeholder Forum
that will act as a vehicle for continuous feedback on the practical experience of
implementation.
This Plan fulfils the strong commitment made in the Programme for a Partnership Government
to deliver an action plan for housing in the first 100 days. Working with my colleague Damien
English T.D., Minister of State for Housing and Urban Renewal, its preparation has been
informed, in particular, by the Report of the Oireachtas Committee on Housing and
Homelessness published last month and by extensive engagement with key stakeholders. I
wish to record my appreciation to all those who shared their thoughts and ideas with my
Department and with me directly and I also wish to thank my Government colleagues for their
vital support in putting this Action Plan together.
Rebuilding Ireland is a far-reaching and ambitious programme. By actively and constructively
working together, we will accelerate supply and transform housing in a way that will affect
every community in Ireland. I am determined that visible evidence of this Plan?s effectiveness
will be seen across the country in the months and years ahead.
Simon Coveney, T.D.
Minister for Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government
July 2016
8
Overview of the Action Plan
Why we need an Action Plan for Housing and Homelessness
Housing is a basic human and social requirement.
Good housing anchors strong communities, a performing economy and an environment of
quality.
Since the economic collapse in 2008, very low levels of housing have been constructed,
especially in the main cities and urban areas where they have continued to be needed.
Our economy has recovered quickly and increasing population and employment mean that
a significant increase in new homes is needed for a growing and working economy, and to
address the significant level of social housing need.
Under-provision of housing, whether by insufficient construction of new housing or existing
housing not being used to its full potential, is one of the last significant legacies of the economic
downturn to be tackled. While it has been a major focus for Government over the past five
years, it is apparent now that the actions taken to date, while important steps in their own right,
have not delivered a response of the scale and speed required.
Construction 2020 A Strategy for a Renewed Construction Sector and the Social Housing
Strategy 2020, both of which were published in 2014, contain measures to address issues and
constraints in the construction and development sectors and in the provision of a range of
social housing outcomes, respectively. The packages of actions being delivered through these
Strategies are having a positive impact, but not at the pace necessary to meet current
pressures and pent-up demands.
Accelerating delivery of housing for the private, social and rented sectors is a key priority for
the Government. Ensuring sufficient stable and sustained provision of housing that is
affordable, in the right locations, meets peoples different needs and is of lasting quality is one
of the greatest challenges facing the country at present. The solutions to this challenge are
wide-ranging and require a number of immediate-, medium- and long-term actions to
increase delivery and address underlying structural issues that, up to now, have been obstacles
to creating a more stable and sustainable housing market.
The response to current housing challenges must be of sufficient scale to address both the
pent-up demand from years of under-supply of new housing and the projected needs over
the coming years.
While this Action Plan does not represent the first effort in recent years by the State to respond
to housing challenges, it represents a significant step forward in accelerating the delivery of
housing units in the right locations and to facilitate sustained provision into the long term.
Core Objectives of the Plan
The overarching aim of this Action Plan is to ramp up delivery of housing from its current undersupply
across all tenures to help individuals and families meet their housing needs, and to help
those who are currently housed to remain in their homes or be provided with appropriate
options of alternative accommodation, especially those families in emergency
accommodation.
This Plan sets ambitious targets to double the annual level of residential construction to 25,000
homes and deliver 47,000 units of social housing in the period to 2021, while at the same time
making the best use of the existing housing stock and laying the foundations for a more vibrant
9
and responsive private rented sector. Achieving the aim of accelerated delivery will
contribute to the following core objectives:
? Addressing the unacceptable level of households, particularly families, in emergency
accommodation;
? Moderating rental and purchase price inflation, particularly in urban areas;
? Addressing a growing affordabil

BA (Hons) in HRM Strategy &amp Practise

 

Economic and Social Policy

Lecture 11: The Housing Sector ? Overview

References:

Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government (2016) Action Plan for Housing ? Rebuilding Ireland, Dublin

Housing Agency, (2015), National Statement of Housing Supply and Demand 2014 and Outlook for 2015-17, Dublin

Housing Agency, (2016), Housing for Older People ? Thinking Ahead, Dublin
(Research Report by Am?rach Research, Ronan Lyons, Lorcan Sirr and Innovation Delivery, Commissioned by the Ireland Smart Ageing Exchange & the Housing Agency)

Some useful data and information sources:
Central Statistics Office
Residential Tenancies Board (RTB)
Property Price Register
Banking and Payments Federation, Ireland
Housing Agency
Society of Chartered Surveyors
Daft.ie
MyHome.ie

1. Introduction

? Housing is very much in the news again

? It was a contributor to the banking crash in 2008 as prices rose, borrowers overextended themselves and banks over-lent

? It was (and is still ?) an important and challenging public policy issue as the level of mortgage arrears and negative equity increased

? Now it?s back in the news due to

o Rising prices

? Affordability

o Rising rents

o A supply shortage

o A growing problem of homelessness
2. Economic and Social Dimension

? Housing policy/market has both economic and social dimensions
o Economic
? important sector in terms of jobs
? can be important source of taxation for government
? need for supporting environmental infrastructure => water, waste, transport => cost to state
? developer contributions
? residential prices (purchase and rent) impact wage levels and in turn competitiveness
? use of available funds
? supply side ? developers, builders
? demand side ? buyers, investors
? part of the wider investment market (e.g. buy-to-let)
? often a pension asset
? opportunity for significant capital gain
? very significant expenditure by individuals
? long term commitment if purchasing
? issue of affordability
? capital
? current

o Social
? need for accommodation
? purchase
? private rented
? social rented
? need for proper standards
? issue of safety e.g. fire safety
? location => commuting times => impact on families
? provision of supporting social infrastructure => education, health, leisure
? desire for home ownership
? but growth of private rented sector
? security of tenure is key issue
? re-emergence of issue of homelessness, especially in cities
? serious social issue

3. Supply dynamics

? Lags in supply

? Relationship with planning and zoning policies

? Price elasticity of supply is low in short run

? This means prices can rise very quickly if demand increases

? Danger of cyclicality in industry and repeated imbalances of supply and demand

? Mix of units required => houses vs apartments, sizes,

? Capacity of building industry

4. Demand dynamics

? Demographics

o including headship rates

? Availability of finance

o bank lending policy

o Central Bank policy (current mortgage lending restrictions)

? Cost of finance

? Incomes

? Job security

? Price expectation is key factor

5. Current situation

? Recovering economy

o increased demand

? Rising house prices (see table at end of lecture notes)

o Note: CSO Index is most appropriate as it is mix-adjusted, based on transactions. MyHome.ie also has mix-adjusted barometer, but based on asking prices.

? Rising rents (see table at end of lecture notes)

o recent decision by Government to limit rent increases to every two years

o good or bad idea ?

? Affordability now an issue

? Mortgage arrears remains a problem

? Limited supply

o was 93,000 at peak

o 12,700 approx. 2015

? Supply/demand imbalance

? Central Bank lending restrictions (maximum LTV 80%/90%, maximum LTI 3.5 times,) have curbed demand somewhat

6. Supply Requirement and future policy

? Despite some slowdown in demand, supply needs to be increased

? Housing Agency estimated that 21,000 units per annum were required up to 2017, double the current level. More recent estimate suggest it could be as high as 42,000 p.a. up to 2018 (DKM/CIF October 2016)

? Mix of owner-occupation and investor demand

? Private rented sector will continue to grow => investor demand

o up from 10% of dwellings in 2006 to 20% in 2011 (Not available yet for 2016 Census)

o but still remains a short-term tenure type for most renters

o only 17% intend renting long-term

o this is different to tradition in many European countries where long-term renting is a well-established tenure type

? Increased need for social housing

o but reduction in social housing budget of two-thirds from 2008 ? 2014

? Homelessness

o Difficult to quantify but growing problem

? Vacant site levy

o annual rate of 3% of market value of site => not until 2019

o aimed at ?forcing? more efficient use of economic resource

? Revision to Part V of Planning and Development Act 2000

o cash in lieu option discontinued

o social housing element now at 20% of units

7. Budget 2016

A number of initiatives were taken in Budget 2016 in relation to the housing sector

? Incentive for FTB?s, tax rebate of 5% up to ?20,000
o Up to ?400,000 (with extention to ?600,000)
o New build only
o Is it inflationary ? is it in effect a builder?s grant ?

? Rent-a-room tax incentives increased => impact on rental market

8. Housing for the Elderly
Housing Agency Research Report published October 2106 (see reference above)
Key questions:
? 1 What are the current and future housing requirements and aspirations of Ireland?s older citizens and how do they differ from the broader population?

? 2. What models of supported housing / independent living with care might best address these requirements and aspirations?

? 3. What policy structures are required to meet these needs and wants in a financially and demographically sustainable way?

? 4. What are the likely policy implementation blockages and how might these be overcome?

? 5. What would be the broader economic and social impact of a well-planned national Supported Housing Initiative?

Key Findings:
? Many older people want to age in place.
?
? But the link may be stronger to the community rather than the actual house. More than 50% of older people when surveyed said that staying in their local community was the key reason for staying in their current home.
?
? At the same time, more than 20% said that the type of house they lived in negatively impacted ?a lot? on their ease of living. This would show an opportunity for more ?age appropriate? housing within existing communities, of living in the same area but in a different home.
?
? The report demonstrates the importance of greater public awareness of planning ahead and avoiding having to make critical decisions following a crisis.
?
? The supply of an appropriate mix of accommodation in communities is key to providing greater choice and independence to older people.

? More needs to be done to achieve this ? building smaller ?age-friendly? accommodation in mixed communities.

? There is potentially a market for up to 100,000 step-down homes in Ireland, which represents ?25bn worth of unmet need.

? If provided, these new homes would also free-up housing equivalent to at least six years supply for first-time buyers.

? Being able to adapt and change our homes to make them more appropriate to our needs as we age (for example, to widen doorways, accessible bathrooms and toilets, extra storage) will have clear benefits in extending people?s independence.

? This is also a relatively untapped market for the construction industry.

? More people are now renting their home long-term, and this trend is likely to continue. The implications of this need to be considered in more detail, particularly: how does the rental sector need to respond to this change (in terms of supply, design, cost, security of tenure, for example) and what will be the implications for the financing of long-term care.

? Following on from the above, State schemes such as the Fair Deal Scheme are designed and budgeted by the state around the premise that some of its costs will be recoverable through the housing asset of the person receiving care.

? Older people are also now increasingly comfortable with technology and it is becoming more user-friendly ? its potential to extend independence requires on-going development and testing.

Source: Residential Property Price Index, CSO, latest available

Source: The RTB Rent Index, Quarter 2 2016, ESRI, latest available

Criteria Weight Proposal 1 Proposal 2 Proposal 3 Proposal 4 Proposal 5
% Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score % Score Weighted Score
A 14% 80 11.2 30 4.2 90 12.6 20 2.8 90 12.6
B 7% 90 6.3 80 5.6 80 5.6 40 2.8 100 7.0
C 8% 70 5.6 90 7.2 65 5.2 50 4.0 75 6.0
D 13% 75 9.8 90 11.7 30 3.9 60 7.8 80 10.4
E 5% 40 2.0 80 4.0 80 4.0 30 1.5 75 3.8
F 17% 35 6.0 65 11.1 90 15.3 35 6.0 45 7.7
G 3% 60 1.8 80 2.4 40 1.2 75 2.3 85 2.6
H 15% 50 7.5 65 9.8 70 10.5 25 3.8 75 11.3
I 10% 20 2.0 40 4.0 80 8.0 20 2.0 35 3.5
J 8% 40 3.2 70 5.6 65 5.2 40 3.2 60 4.8
—— —— —— —— —— ——
Total 100% 55.3 65.5 71.5 36.1 69.5
Rank 4 3 1 5 2

Contents
FOREWORD BY AN TAOISEACH …………………………………………………………………… 5
FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER ………………………………………………………………………. 6
OVERVIEW OF THE ACTION PLAN ………………………………………………………………… 8
Why we need an Action Plan for Housing and Homelessness ………………………………………………….. 8
Core Objectives of the Plan ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Key Action Areas ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Five Key Pillars of the Plan …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12
Pathfinders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….16
CONTEXT FOR THIS ACTION PLAN FOR HOUSING AND HOMELESSNESS ………….19
Housing and Wider Public Policy ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19
Housing Challenges ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
Housing Supply Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………29
PILLAR 1: ADDRESS HOMELESSNESS ……………………………………………………………..33
Addressing homelessness …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
Homeless households …………………………………………………………………………………………………….34
Moving families out of hotels …………………………………………………………………………………………34
Rapid-Build housing………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35
Housing Assistance Payment for homeless households ………………………………………………..35
Supports for families with children………………………………………………………………………………….35
Homeless individuals and Housing First ………………………………………………………………………….36
Emergency shelters ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
Homelessness prevention keeping people in their own homes ……………………………………………..38
Young people leaving State care …………………………………………………………………………………38
Preventing homelessness for other vulnerable groups …………………………………………………38
Tenancy sustainment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..38
Rent Supplement/Housing Assistance Payment …………………………………………………………..38
Mortgage arrears …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
Mortgage Arrears Resolution Service …………………………………………………………………………….41
National information campaign ……………………………………………………………………………………41
Preparation of draft legisation……………………………………………………………………………………….41
Code of Conduct on Mortgage Arrears ……………………………………………………………………….41
Mortgage to Rent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

PILLAR 2: ACCELERATE SOCIAL HOUSING …………………………………………………….43
Increasing and Accelerating Social Housing Delivery ………………………………………………………………44
Our Programmes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46
Accelerated Roll-out of the Housing Assistance Payment (HAP) Scheme ………………………………48
New Delivery Mechanisms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………49
NTMA/Private Sector Housing Fund ……………………………………………………………………………….49
Housing Agency acquisitions …………………………………………………………………………………………50
Part V delivery ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
Mixed-Tenure development on State lands and other lands ………………………………………50
Vacant Housing Repair and Leasing Initiative ………………………………………………………………51
Innovations to improve, support and accelerate delivery ……………………………………………………….51
Housing Delivery Office ………………………………………………………………………………………………….51
Housing Procurement Unit ……………………………………………………………………………………………..51
Accelerating social housing approval processes …………………………………………………………51
Streamlining Part 8 planning processes for LA and AHB housing projects …………………..52
Supporting Approved Housing Bodies to deliver ………………………………………………………….52
Housing for specific groups ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53
Older people ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….53
People with a disability…………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
Traveller specific accommodation ……………………………………………………………………………….55
Irish Refugee Protection Programme …………………………………………………………………………….55
PILLAR 3: BUILD MORE HOMES …………………………………………………………………….57
Land Supply Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58
Supporting Infrastructure Investment …………………………………………………………………………………………59
Local Infrastructure Housing Activation Fund (LIHAF) …………………………………………………..60
NTMA funding of large infrastructure Supporting Housing Infrastructure Investment ..61
Planning Reforms ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..61
Streamlining planning processes for larger private housing developments ………………..62
Investment in re-using or converting urban commercial developments …………………….63
Wider Planning Reforms …………………………………………………………………………………………………63
National Planning Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………………………63
Costs of Delivering New Homes …………………………………………………………………………………………………64
Land costs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………65
Construction costs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
Construction Sector Capacity and Skills ……………………………………………………………………………………66

PILLAR 4: IMPROVE THE RENTAL SECTOR……………………………………………………….69
Rental Strategy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..70
Early Legislative Actions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
Standards in Rental Accommodation ……………………………………………………………………………………….71
Role of the Residential Tenancies Board ……………………………………………………………………………………72
Encouragement of build-to-rent sector ……………………………………………………………………………………. 72
Affordable Rental ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
Student Accommodation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
PILLAR 5: UTILISE EXISTING HOUSING ……………………………………………………………77
Social Housing Stock …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..78
Better Management of Social Housing Stock ……………………………………………………………….78
Choice-Based Letting …………………………………………………………………………………………………….79
Review of Tenant (Incremental) Purchase Scheme …………………………………………………….79
Private Sector Housing Stock ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..80
Housing Agency Vacant Housing Purchasing Initiative ………………………………………………..80
Vacant Housing Repair and Leasing Initiative ………………………………………………………………80
Removing Regulatory Barriers to Re-Use ……………………………………………………………………….81
Urban Regeneration ………………………………………………………………………………………………………81
Living City Initiative …………………………………………………………………………………………………………82
Village and Rural Renewal …………………………………………………………………………………………….82
Unfinished Estates …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..83
GLOSSARY OF TERMS …………………………………………………………………………………84
APPENDIX 1: TABLE OF ACTIONS …………………………………………………………………86
APPENDIX 2: RESPONSE TO KEY RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE OIREACHTAS
COMMITTEE ON HOUSING AND HOMELESSNESS …………………….106
APPENDIX 3: SUMMARY OF PROPOSED LEGISLATIVE CHANGES …………………..111
APPENDIX 4: THE NATIONAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK (NPF) ………………………..113
5
Foreword by An Taoiseach
In forming the current Government, I was determined that the housing challenge was going
to be addressed fully and finally which is why it was positioned as a key objective in the
Programme for a Partnership Government.
The publication of this Action Plan on Housing and Homelessness, well within the timeframe of
100 days set out in the Government Programme, underpins our commitment to end the
housing shortage and to tackle homelessness.
Ireland has been here before in terms of needing to provide good quality housing to meet our
people?s needs. In the past, we showed ourselves to be capable of rising to the challenge
and I am committed to ensuring that we will do so again, in a manner that delivers strong,
sustainable communities.
This Plan sets out a clear roadmap to achieve the Government?s goals to significantly increase
and expedite the delivery of social housing units, boost private housing construction, improve
the rental market, and deliver on the commitment to see housing supply, in overall terms,
increase to some 25,000 new homes every year by 2020.
Ending rough sleeping and the use of unsuitable long-term emergency accommodation,
including hotels and B&Bs, for homeless families, are key priorities that take precedence within
the Plan.
The range of actions set out in the Plan is ambitious, both in the scale of investment of some
?5.5 billion in social housing and housing infrastructure, but also in its pursuit of appropriate
reform, acknowledging the need for new thinking if we are going to deliver the kind of housing
that people want, in the right places and in a manner that they can afford.
Just as the drafting of this Action Plan has been a collaborative process involving a wide range
of interests, so too will its implementation rely on all stakeholders, including Government
departments, local authorities, housing agencies, voluntary bodies, and the construction
sector, to achieve its ambitious goals.
In order to ensure its success, the key targets of this Action Plan will be subject to regular
Cabinet review. The Cabinet Committee on Housing, which I chair, will actively oversee its
implementation.
This is a cross-Government plan, which also stretches beyond into the local government and
voluntary sectors. I am committed to ensuring that it results in us achieving our critical national
ambition of ensuring that all of our people have access to quality and affordable housing,
either through their own endeavours or with the support of the State.
An Taoiseach,
Enda Kenny, T.D.
July 2016
6
Foreword by the Minister
I was appointed as Minister with specific responsibility for Housing, Planning, Community and
Local Government to focus intensively on the challenge of tackling the housing crisis.
The Government?s mission is to ensure that everyone can access a home, either on their own
or with State support. We are determined to deal with the dramatic under-supply of housing
and the problems it generates for families and communities.
I have described the problems faced by our people, particularly in our urban centres, as an
emergency situation. None of us can fail to be moved by the plight of people who are
homeless, especially families and children living in hotels, and people who are sleeping on our
streets.
These are particularly visible examples of our broken housing sector, but no less urgent are the
challenges faced by households who face the loss of the home they currently live in, or the
lives kept on hold as people struggle to access the housing and rental market.
Rebuilding Ireland, an Action Plan for Housing and Homelessness, comprises five pillars of
concerted actions right across Government ? addressing homelessness, accelerating social
housing, building more homes, improving the rental sector and utilising existing housing.
A key priority is addressing the unacceptable level of homeless families and long-term
homeless people in emergency accommodation, by providing rapid-delivery housing,
alongside measures to support those at risk of losing their homes.
A truly ambitious social housing programme of 47,000 units to 2021 will be delivered with
funding of ?5.35 billion.
We have also put in place a ?200m Infrastructure Fund to open up large sites where homes
are needed and where homes are now going to be built.
In addition, we have increased the levels of Rent Supplement and the Housing Assistance
Payment to give people, who need it most, more security to remain in their homes.
The output of private housing will increase, by enhancing the viability of construction, in order
to double the completion level of additional homes in the next four years to deliver the 25,000
homes or more we need annually.
We will develop a strategy for a viable, sustainable and affordable rental sector, with early
legislative actions to protect tenants and landlords.
We will also ensure that available existing housing is used to the maximum degree possible.
Achieving these goals will rebuild Ireland in a way that affects every aspect of our lives. Good
housing anchors strong communities, a performing economy and an environment of quality.
7
This Plan will be driven by the Government in a way that will be visible, tangible and totally
focused around results on the ground ? more homes, at an affordable price, in the places
where they are needed and a reduction in the numbers of homeless people in hotels and
emergency accommodation.
The publication of this Plan is only the beginning and the implementation has already started.
I am establishing a special Housing Delivery Office within my Department which will play a key
role in the implementation of this Plan. There will also be a new Housing Procurement Unit in
the Housing Agency and the role of local authorities and Approved Housing Bodies will be
critical. So that the Plan?s delivery is grounded in reality, I am establishing a Stakeholder Forum
that will act as a vehicle for continuous feedback on the practical experience of
implementation.
This Plan fulfils the strong commitment made in the Programme for a Partnership Government
to deliver an action plan for housing in the first 100 days. Working with my colleague Damien
English T.D., Minister of State for Housing and Urban Renewal, its preparation has been
informed, in particular, by the Report of the Oireachtas Committee on Housing and
Homelessness published last month and by extensive engagement with key stakeholders. I
wish to record my appreciation to all those who shared their thoughts and ideas with my
Department and with me directly and I also wish to thank my Government colleagues for their
vital support in putting this Action Plan together.
Rebuilding Ireland is a far-reaching and ambitious programme. By actively and constructively
working together, we will accelerate supply and transform housing in a way that will affect
every community in Ireland. I am determined that visible evidence of this Plan?s effectiveness
will be seen across the country in the months and years ahead.
Simon Coveney, T.D.
Minister for Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government
July 2016
8
Overview of the Action Plan
Why we need an Action Plan for Housing and Homelessness
Housing is a basic human and social requirement.
Good housing anchors strong communities, a performing economy and an environment of
quality.
Since the economic collapse in 2008, very low levels of housing have been constructed,
especially in the main cities and urban areas where they have continued to be needed.
Our economy has recovered quickly and increasing population and employment mean that
a significant increase in new homes is needed for a growing and working economy, and to
address the significant level of social housing need.
Under-provision of housing, whether by insufficient construction of new housing or existing
housing not being used to its full potential, is one of the last significant legacies of the economic
downturn to be tackled. While it has been a major focus for Government over the past five
years, it is apparent now that the actions taken to date, while important steps in their own right,
have not delivered a response of the scale and speed required.
Construction 2020 A Strategy for a Renewed Construction Sector and the Social Housing
Strategy 2020, both of which were published in 2014, contain measures to address issues and
constraints in the construction and development sectors and in the provision of a range of
social housing outcomes, respectively. The packages of actions being delivered through these
Strategies are having a positive impact, but not at the pace necessary to meet current
pressures and pent-up demands.
Accelerating delivery of housing for the private, social and rented sectors is a key priority for
the Government. Ensuring sufficient stable and sustained provision of housing that is
affordable, in the right locations, meets peoples different needs and is of lasting quality is one
of the greatest challenges facing the country at present. The solutions to this challenge are
wide-ranging and require a number of immediate-, medium- and long-term actions to
increase delivery and address underlying structural issues that, up to now, have been obstacles
to creating a more stable and sustainable housing market.
The response to current housing challenges must be of sufficient scale to address both the
pent-up demand from years of under-supply of new housing and the projected needs over
the coming years.
While this Action Plan does not represent the first effort in recent years by the State to respond
to housing challenges, it represents a significant step forward in accelerating the delivery of
housing units in the right locations and to facilitate sustained provision into the long term.
Core Objectives of the Plan
The overarching aim of this Action Plan is to ramp up delivery of housing from its current undersupply
across all tenures to help individuals and families meet their housing needs, and to help
those who are currently housed to remain in their homes or be provided with appropriate
options of alternative accommodation, especially those families in emergency
accommodation.
This Plan sets ambitious targets to double the annual level of residential construction to 25,000
homes and deliver 47,000 units of social housing in the period to 2021, while at the same time
making the best use of the existing housing stock and laying the foundations for a more vibrant
9
and responsive private rented sector. Achieving the aim of accelerated delivery will
contribute to the following core objectives:
? Addressing the unacceptable level of households, particularly families, in emergency
accommodation;
? Moderating rental and purchase price inflation, particularly in urban areas;
? Addressing a growing affordabil

A Comparison of Key Models in Health Informatics

 

As part of this course, you will be developing an evaluation plan based on an appropriate model. For this Assignment, you will examine in depth the four models introduced in this weeks Learning Resources (Technology Acceptance, Model Diffusion of Innovations, Disruptive Innovation, Sociotechnical Theory Models). By increasing your familiarity with these key models, you will more easily recognize which would be most appropriate for the evaluation you decide to perform.
To prepare:
Review the four research models covered in this week?s Learning Resources.
Consider the key points of each and when they would be the most appropriate choice for an evaluation.
To complete this Assignment:
By Thursday 12/22/2016 by 5pm,
1) Create graphic representations of the four models, including descriptions of each overall model, key components, who was involved in their development, key ways they have been used, and potential uses in health informatics.
2) These representations will be for your use in your upcoming course project, so the greater the detail, the more useful these representations will be to you.
3) Potential formats could include but are not limited to tables, mind maps, Venn diagrams, or concept maps.
P.S. include an introduction and a summary. The introduction must end with a purpose statement (e.g. ?The purpose of this paper is to ?? ) in APA format.
Use the references listed in the instructions area for this assignment.
Thank you!

Required Readings

Technology Acceptance Model

Kowitlawakul, Y. (2011). The Technology Acceptance Model: Predicting nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU). Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 29(7), 411?418.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Nurses encounter a variety of technological tools that are used in their field. This article explores the technology acceptance model and how it applies to nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology.

Pai, F.-Y., & Huang, K. (2011). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to the introduction of healthcare information systems. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(4), 650?660.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article focuses on the attempt to develop a model that will assist nurses in mastering the use of health information technology (HIT), thus enabling them to spend more time on patient care and less on clerical-type duties. The authors also studied how the use of HIT could increase patient safety.

Rippen, H. E., Pan, E. C., Russell, C., Byrne, C. M., & Swift, E. K. (2013). Organizational framework for health information technology. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 82(4), e1?e13.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight results of a literature review on the implementation of health information technology and the related theories and models. Based on their research, the authors developed a framework of key areas that provides a structure to organize and capture information on the use of health IT.

Mohamed, A. H., Tawfik, H. M., Al-Jumeily, D., & Norton, L. (2011). MoHTAM: A Technology Acceptance Model for mobile health applications. Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE) Conference, 13?18.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight a model they developed to determine how the decision to use a mobile health application is influenced by the design of the technology, the perceived ease of using it, and the perceived usefulness of the technology.

Diffusion of Innovations

Barnett, J., Vasileiou, K., Djemil, F., Brooks, L., & Young, T. (2011). Understanding innovators? experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: A qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 342.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

In this article, the authors describe the experiences of innovators in the medical field and the barriers that they have experienced in the implementation and diffusion of health care service innovations.

Kaissi, A. (2012). ?Learning? from other industries: Lessons and challenges for health care organizations. Health Care Manager, 31(1), 65?74.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this paper, the author explores how diffusion of innovations occurs in a variety of different industries and how these lessons can be adapted for use in the health care industries.

Thakur, R., Hsu, S. H. Y., & Fontenot, G. (2012). Innovation in healthcare: Issues and future trends. Journal of Business Research, 65(4), 562?569.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The medical field is a constantly evolving and improving. This article explores important innovations in the health care industry while highlighting certain issues and trends that may affect the future of the field.

Dickinson, A. D., & Scott, M. (2012). Diffusion of innovations in the National Health Service: A case study investigating the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In UK Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) 17th Annual Conference, 27?28 March 2012, New College, Oxford. Retrieved from http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/6223/2/UKAIS_2012_paperDD_MS.pdf

This article examines a case study that focuses on the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In particular, the study highlights how new users adopt the system.

Valente, T. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1995). The origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm as an example of scientific growth. Science Communication, 16(3), 242?273.

Copyright 1995 by Sage Publications Inc. Reprinted by permission of RISage Publications Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

In this article, Valente and Rogers explore the origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm. Through examining the different stages, it is possible to better understand how innovations are spread, accepted, and adopted within a health care organization.

Disruptive Innovation

Christensen, C. M., Bohmer, R., & Kenagy, J. (2000). Will disruptive innovations cure health care? Harvard Business Review, 78(5), 102?112.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

The health care field is constantly in need of new technologies to fill specific needs and niches. In this article, the authors discuss the role disruptive innovations could play in the development of the needed technologies.

Dhar, M., Griffin, M., Hollin, I., & Kachnowski, S. (2012). Innovation spaces: Six strategies to inform health care. Health Care Manager, 31(2), 166?177.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors use the disruptive innovation model as the framework to examine how innovation occurs in health care organizations. They determined six strategies to encourage innovation: dedicated times, formal teams, outside ideas, idea-sharing platforms, company/job goals, and incentives.

Poll, W. (2011). Derision is the sweet spot of adoption: Unleashing disruptive growth. Hospital Topics, 89(1), 23?25.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

It is common that many people look at change and new technologies with a hint of disdain or distrust. The author of this article discusses how new ideas and disruptive innovations can be effectively presented to a somewhat hesitant organizations.

Sociotechnical Theory Models

Ancker, J. S., Kern, L. M., Abramson, E., & Kaushal, R. (2012). The Triangle Model for evaluating the effect of health information technology on healthcare quality and safety. Journal of American Medical Informatics Associations, 19(1), 61?65.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explain the Triangle Model for designing studies on the safety and quality outcomes of health information technology projects. The article focuses on the predictors of the model, including attributes of the technology in question, the technology provider, the organizational setting, and the population involved.

Currie, L., Sheehan, B., Graham, P., Stetson, P., Cato, K., & Wilcox, A. (2009). Sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal ICU. Studies In Health Technology and Informatics, (146), 258?262.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of sociotechnical theory. The authors also describe the results of a sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal intensive care unit.

Molleman, E., & Broekhuis, M. (2001). Sociotechnical systems: Towards an organizational learning approach. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 18(3), 271?294.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explore the application of sociotechnical systems (STS) theory for designing work processes to improve organizational performance. The authors examine the application of STS with four organizational performance indicators: price, quality, flexibility, and innovation.

Scott-Findlay, S., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2006). Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 498?513.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides an empirical review of the nursing literature on organizational culture and its influence on practitioners.

As part of this course, you will be developing an evaluation plan based on an appropriate model. For this Assignment, you will examine in depth the four models introduced in this weeks Learning Resources (Technology Acceptance, Model Diffusion of Innovations, Disruptive Innovation, Sociotechnical Theory Models). By increasing your familiarity with these key models, you will more easily recognize which would be most appropriate for the evaluation you decide to perform.
To prepare:
Review the four research models covered in this week?s Learning Resources.
Consider the key points of each and when they would be the most appropriate choice for an evaluation.
To complete this Assignment:
By Thursday 12/22/2016 by 5pm,
1) Create graphic representations of the four models, including descriptions of each overall model, key components, who was involved in their development, key ways they have been used, and potential uses in health informatics.
2) These representations will be for your use in your upcoming course project, so the greater the detail, the more useful these representations will be to you.
3) Potential formats could include but are not limited to tables, mind maps, Venn diagrams, or concept maps.
P.S. include an introduction and a summary. The introduction must end with a purpose statement (e.g. ?The purpose of this paper is to ?? ) in APA format.
Use the references listed in the instructions area for this assignment.
Thank you!

Required Readings

Technology Acceptance Model

Kowitlawakul, Y. (2011). The Technology Acceptance Model: Predicting nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU). Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 29(7), 411?418.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Nurses encounter a variety of technological tools that are used in their field. This article explores the technology acceptance model and how it applies to nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology.

Pai, F.-Y., & Huang, K. (2011). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to the introduction of healthcare information systems. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(4), 650?660.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article focuses on the attempt to develop a model that will assist nurses in mastering the use of health information technology (HIT), thus enabling them to spend more time on patient care and less on clerical-type duties. The authors also studied how the use of HIT could increase patient safety.

Rippen, H. E., Pan, E. C., Russell, C., Byrne, C. M., & Swift, E. K. (2013). Organizational framework for health information technology. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 82(4), e1?e13.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight results of a literature review on the implementation of health information technology and the related theories and models. Based on their research, the authors developed a framework of key areas that provides a structure to organize and capture information on the use of health IT.

Mohamed, A. H., Tawfik, H. M., Al-Jumeily, D., & Norton, L. (2011). MoHTAM: A Technology Acceptance Model for mobile health applications. Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE) Conference, 13?18.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight a model they developed to determine how the decision to use a mobile health application is influenced by the design of the technology, the perceived ease of using it, and the perceived usefulness of the technology.

Diffusion of Innovations

Barnett, J., Vasileiou, K., Djemil, F., Brooks, L., & Young, T. (2011). Understanding innovators? experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: A qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 342.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

In this article, the authors describe the experiences of innovators in the medical field and the barriers that they have experienced in the implementation and diffusion of health care service innovations.

Kaissi, A. (2012). ?Learning? from other industries: Lessons and challenges for health care organizations. Health Care Manager, 31(1), 65?74.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this paper, the author explores how diffusion of innovations occurs in a variety of different industries and how these lessons can be adapted for use in the health care industries.

Thakur, R., Hsu, S. H. Y., & Fontenot, G. (2012). Innovation in healthcare: Issues and future trends. Journal of Business Research, 65(4), 562?569.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The medical field is a constantly evolving and improving. This article explores important innovations in the health care industry while highlighting certain issues and trends that may affect the future of the field.

Dickinson, A. D., & Scott, M. (2012). Diffusion of innovations in the National Health Service: A case study investigating the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In UK Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) 17th Annual Conference, 27?28 March 2012, New College, Oxford. Retrieved from http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/6223/2/UKAIS_2012_paperDD_MS.pdf

This article examines a case study that focuses on the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In particular, the study highlights how new users adopt the system.

Valente, T. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1995). The origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm as an example of scientific growth. Science Communication, 16(3), 242?273.

Copyright 1995 by Sage Publications Inc. Reprinted by permission of RISage Publications Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

In this article, Valente and Rogers explore the origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm. Through examining the different stages, it is possible to better understand how innovations are spread, accepted, and adopted within a health care organization.

Disruptive Innovation

Christensen, C. M., Bohmer, R., & Kenagy, J. (2000). Will disruptive innovations cure health care? Harvard Business Review, 78(5), 102?112.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

The health care field is constantly in need of new technologies to fill specific needs and niches. In this article, the authors discuss the role disruptive innovations could play in the development of the needed technologies.

Dhar, M., Griffin, M., Hollin, I., & Kachnowski, S. (2012). Innovation spaces: Six strategies to inform health care. Health Care Manager, 31(2), 166?177.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors use the disruptive innovation model as the framework to examine how innovation occurs in health care organizations. They determined six strategies to encourage innovation: dedicated times, formal teams, outside ideas, idea-sharing platforms, company/job goals, and incentives.

Poll, W. (2011). Derision is the sweet spot of adoption: Unleashing disruptive growth. Hospital Topics, 89(1), 23?25.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

It is common that many people look at change and new technologies with a hint of disdain or distrust. The author of this article discusses how new ideas and disruptive innovations can be effectively presented to a somewhat hesitant organizations.

Sociotechnical Theory Models

Ancker, J. S., Kern, L. M., Abramson, E., & Kaushal, R. (2012). The Triangle Model for evaluating the effect of health information technology on healthcare quality and safety. Journal of American Medical Informatics Associations, 19(1), 61?65.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explain the Triangle Model for designing studies on the safety and quality outcomes of health information technology projects. The article focuses on the predictors of the model, including attributes of the technology in question, the technology provider, the organizational setting, and the population involved.

Currie, L., Sheehan, B., Graham, P., Stetson, P., Cato, K., & Wilcox, A. (2009). Sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal ICU. Studies In Health Technology and Informatics, (146), 258?262.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of sociotechnical theory. The authors also describe the results of a sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal intensive care unit.

Molleman, E., & Broekhuis, M. (2001). Sociotechnical systems: Towards an organizational learning approach. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 18(3), 271?294.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explore the application of sociotechnical systems (STS) theory for designing work processes to improve organizational performance. The authors examine the application of STS with four organizational performance indicators: price, quality, flexibility, and innovation.

Scott-Findlay, S., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2006). Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 498?513.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides an empirical review of the nursing literature on organizational culture and its influence on practitioners.

A comparison of sample populations

submit a summary of six of your articles on the discussion board. Discuss one strength and one weakness to each of these six articles on why they may or may not provide sufficient evidence for your practice change.
DQ 2 : Name two difference methods for evaluating evidence. Compare and contrast these two methods
Assignment
Review the PICO(T) resources listed in the topic readings.
Formulate a PICOT statement using the PICOT format used in the assigned readings. The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your Capstone Project.
In a paper of 500-750 words, clearly identify the clinical problem (from your Topic 1 approved Change Proposal) and how it can result in a positive patient outcome.
Make sure to address the following on the PICOT statement:
1. Evidence-Based Solution
2. Nursing Intervention
3. Patient Care
4. Health Care Agency
5. Nursing Practice
Recall that a PICOT starts with a designated patient population in a particular clinical area and identifies clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care. The intervention should be an independent, specified nursing change intervention. The intervention cannot require a provider prescription or equipment change. Include a comparison to a patient population not currently receiving the intervention, and specify the timeframe needed to implement the change process.
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

DQ 1 After discussion with your mentor, name one financial, one quality, and one clinical aspect that needs to be taken into account for developing the evidence-based practice project. For each aspect, explain how your proposal will directly and indirectly impact each of the aspects.
DQ 2 Access and review the “Capstone Project Topic Selection, Rationale, and Approval” assignment from Topic 1. Now that you have completed a series of assignments that have led you into the active project planning and development stage for your project, take your discussion a step further and briefly describe your proposed solution to address the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need. How has this changed since you first envisioned it, and what led to your current perspective and direction?
Assignment
An implementation plan prepares students to apply the research they have identified and vetted to the problem or issue they have identified for their Capstone Change Proposal Project. A literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the Project.
In this assignment students will develop a 750-1,000-word literature review in which to synthesize what is known and unknown about the Project issue selected. Students will use the information from the PICOT Statement and Evaluation Table assignments prior in the course to develop a planned approach to implementing the evidence-based practice solution. The underlying purpose of this assignment is to analyze how the current research supports the PICOT, and to identify what is known and what is not known in the evidence, providing a logical, constructive argument.
Include the following sections:
1. Title page
2. Introduction section
3. A comparison of research questions
4. A comparison of sample populations
5. A comparison of the limitations of the study
6. A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research

A comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures.

A comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures.

RUBRIC:
1-Comprehensive Description of a Communicable Disease and the Demographic of Interest: Overview describing the demographic of interest and clinical description of the communicable disease is presented with a thorough, accurate, and clear overview of all of the clinical descriptors.

2-Determinants of Health and Explanation of How Determinants Contribute to Disease Development:Paper comprehensively discusses the determinants of health in relation to the communicable disease, explains their contribution to disease development, and provides evidence to support main points.
3-Epidemiologic Triangle (Host Factors, Agent Factors, and Environmental Factors):The communicable disease is described thoroughly, accurately, and clearly within an epidemiological model. A visual description of the model and how the components of the model interact is included.
4-Role of the Community Health Nurse:Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive of the community nurse’s responsibilities to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection and analysis, and follow up.
5-National Agency or Organization That Works to Addresses Communicable Disease:An agency or organization is identified. A clear and accurate description of efforts to address communicable disease is offered.
6-Thesis Development and Purpose:Thesis is comprehensive, contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
7-Paragraph Development and Transitions:There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.
8-Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use):Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
9-Global Implication:A discussion of the global implication of the disease is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive with a comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.
10-Paper Format:All format elements are correct.
11-Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment):In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.

Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease Selection
Choose one communicable disease from the following list:
1. Chickenpox
2. Tuberculosis
3. Influenza
4. Mononucleosis
5. Hepatitis B
6. HIV
7. Ebola
8. Measles
9. Polio
10. Influenza
Epidemiology Paper Requirements

A comprehensive health

 

In this assignment, you will be completing a comprehensive health screening and history on a young adult. To complete this assignment, do the following:
Select an adolescent or young adult client on whom to perform a health screening and history. Students who do not work in an acute setting may practice” these skills with a patient, community member, neighbor, friend, colleague, or loved one.
Complete the Health History and Screening of an Adolescent or Young Adult Client” worksheet.
Complete the assignment as outlined on the worksheet, including:
Biographical data
Past health history
Family history: Obstetrics history (if applicable) and well young adult behavioral health history screening
Review of systems
All components of the health history
Three nursing diagnoses for this client based on the health history and screening (one actual nursing diagnosis, one wellness nursing diagnosis, and one risk for” nursing diagnosis)
Rationale for the choice of each nursing diagnosis.
A wellness plan for the adolescent/young adult client, using the three nursing diagnoses you have identified.
Format the write-up in a manner that is easily read, computer-generated, neat, and without spelling errors. Use correct acronyms or abbreviations when indicated.
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are not required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.
NRS-434VN-R-HealthScreeningandHistoryAdolescentAssignment-Student.d

RUBRICS

Benchmark Health Screening and History of an Adolescent or Young Adult Client

1

Unsatisfactory

0.00%
2

Less than Satisfactory

75.00%
3

Satisfactory

79.00%
4

Good

89.00%
5

Excellent

100.00%
80.0 %Content

20.0 % Include All Components of the Health Screening and Health History (Biographical Data, Past Health History, Family History, Review of Systems)
Does not provide health history and/or screening.
Provides some components of the health screening and history in an incomplete form.
Provides all components of the health screening and history in a complete form.
Provides all components of the health screening and history in detail and relates information to the diagnoses.
Provides all components of the health screening and history in extensive detail and relates information to the diagnoses and integrates into treatment plan.
30.0 % Develop Actual Nursing, Wellness, and ?Risk For? diagnoses for the Client Based on Health History and Screening
Does not provide nursing diagnoses.
Provides incomplete nursing diagnoses (Actual, Wellness, and Risk For) based upon the information collected in the health screening and history, and review of systems. Rationale absent.
Provides complete and accurate nursing diagnoses (Actual, Wellness, and Risk For) and includes rationale based upon the information collected in the health screening and history.
Interrelates complete and accurate nursing diagnoses (Actual, Wellness, and Risk For) and provides rationale based upon the information collected in the health screening and history, and review of systems.
Interrelates complete and accurate nursing diagnoses (Actual, Wellness, and Risk For), provides rationale based upon the information collected in the health screening and history, and review of systems, and integrates each diagnosis into a recommended wellness plan for the patient.
20.0 % Wellness Plan
Does not provide wellness plan.
Provides incomplete wellness plan based upon the diagnoses developed.
Provides complete and accurate wellness plan based upon the diagnoses developed.
Provides all components of the wellness plan in detail and relates information to the diagnoses.
Provides all components of the wellness plan in extensive detail and relates information to the diagnoses.
10.0 % Use Appropriate Medical Acronyms and Abbreviations
Medical acronyms and abbreviations are absent.
Medical acronyms and abbreviations are incorrectly used.
Medical acronyms and abbreviations are used and generally consistent.
Medical acronyms and abbreviations are used and appropriate.
Medical acronyms and abbreviations are sophisticated and used appropriately.
10.0 %Organization and Effectiveness

10.0 % Mechanics of Writing (Includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use)
Surface errors pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction used.
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present.
Some mechanical errors/typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.
Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.
Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
10.0 %Format

10.0 % Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment)
No reference page is included. No citations are used.
Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used.
Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present.
Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and style is usually correct.
In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.
100 % Total Weightage

A COMPUTER-BASED EDUCATION INTERVENTION TO ENHANCE SURROGATES INFORMED CONSENT FOR GENOMICS RESEARCH

 

Description

Read the following article: A Computer-Based Education Intervention to Enhance Surrogates’ Informed Consent for Genomics Research Ethics guidelines now require that individuals give informed consent to participate in research. Existing ethical guidelines do not help us decide how to seek consent and have allowed managerial experimentation to remain unchecked. Based on your understanding of the topic and the article, answer the following question: Do you think that alternative forms of community consent should be actively pursued? Why or why not?

How would you feel if your medical records were examined and included in research without your consent based on an illness in the past? Discussion Question 2 Scenario Two nurse researchers are interested in studying whether a pain assessment tool for critical care patients is valid and reliable when applied to a group of patients who cannot communicate verbally due to mechanical ventilation. They design a validation study in which randomly selected patients will be assessed using the tool after a painful procedure (tracheal suctioning) and after a nonpainful procedure (oral care).

If patient responses result in higher scores after the painful procedure than after the nonpainful one, then the researchers will conclude that the tool is effective for these patients in differentiating pain responses from responses to nursing procedures in general. Using the checklist in the text, discuss and draw a conclusion as to whether this study will likely be exempt, expedited, or full review. Would the study be considered ethical? Explain your rationale. Discussion Question 3 Research a historical experiment that impacted or helped shape the development of ethical codes and regulations. Discuss the experiment and discuss the rights violated within the study (if any). Discuss any outcomes or legislature associated with the study. What type of consent would have been needed to make the study ethical and valid? Citations should conform to APA guidelines. You may use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources or connect to the APA Style website through the APA icon below

A counselor has been treating a client, Jay, who was recently in a bad accident that left him bedridden and partially paralyzed. With sustained physiotherapy and medication, the paralytic effect has gone, but motor movements are still affected.

Confidentiality

A counselor has been treating a client, Jay, who was recently in a bad accident that left him bedridden and partially paralyzed. With sustained physiotherapy and medication, the paralytic effect has gone, but motor movements are still affected.

Jay’s steady girlfriend left him when she could not cope with the demands of a paralytic partner. Jay lost his job too. These left a heavy dent on his self-esteem, and he was slowly letting his life slip past. He began attending therapy at the insistence of friends.

One day, he discloses to his counselor that he is contemplating suicide because there is nothing he looks forward to in life. He announces that he has had enough of living and plans to shoot himself that evening. The counselor knows he has access to an old hunting rifle and that he has attempted suicide in the past. He has been under treatment for major clinical depression for the past three months.

  • Discuss the ethical issues presented in this scenario; identify the ethical code number and definition.
  • Describe the limits of confidentiality that must be considered. Explain in  detail with examples
  • Justify whether or not the counselor would need to break confidentiality. Explain thoroughly
  • Describe the steps the counselor should follow if he or she finds it necessary to break confidentiality. Details here and references with examples
  • Compare the ethical issues presented in this scenario to the APA’s ethical standards and describe the similarities or differences in the ethical codes using the following website: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx.
  • When is it appropriate to breach confidentiality?
  • Your client is threatening to harm himself. As his mental health worker, what is your responsibility? Explain and refrences

I found a very interesting article (with a short video) that showed what happened when a therapist in Colorodo reported the homicidal thoughts of his client to authorities: Therapist Reported Client’s Homicidal Thoughts

Please use the video in the references please

 

One page min please

 

A Comparison of Key Models in Health Informatics

 

As part of this course, you will be developing an evaluation plan based on an appropriate model. For this Assignment, you will examine in depth the four models introduced in this weeks Learning Resources (Technology Acceptance, Model Diffusion of Innovations, Disruptive Innovation, Sociotechnical Theory Models). By increasing your familiarity with these key models, you will more easily recognize which would be most appropriate for the evaluation you decide to perform.
To prepare:
Review the four research models covered in this week?s Learning Resources.
Consider the key points of each and when they would be the most appropriate choice for an evaluation.
To complete this Assignment:
By Thursday 12/22/2016 by 5pm,
1) Create graphic representations of the four models, including descriptions of each overall model, key components, who was involved in their development, key ways they have been used, and potential uses in health informatics.
2) These representations will be for your use in your upcoming course project, so the greater the detail, the more useful these representations will be to you.
3) Potential formats could include but are not limited to tables, mind maps, Venn diagrams, or concept maps.
P.S. include an introduction and a summary. The introduction must end with a purpose statement (e.g. ?The purpose of this paper is to ?? ) in APA format.
Use the references listed in the instructions area for this assignment.
Thank you!

Required Readings

Technology Acceptance Model

Kowitlawakul, Y. (2011). The Technology Acceptance Model: Predicting nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU). Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 29(7), 411?418.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Nurses encounter a variety of technological tools that are used in their field. This article explores the technology acceptance model and how it applies to nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology.

Pai, F.-Y., & Huang, K. (2011). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to the introduction of healthcare information systems. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(4), 650?660.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article focuses on the attempt to develop a model that will assist nurses in mastering the use of health information technology (HIT), thus enabling them to spend more time on patient care and less on clerical-type duties. The authors also studied how the use of HIT could increase patient safety.

Rippen, H. E., Pan, E. C., Russell, C., Byrne, C. M., & Swift, E. K. (2013). Organizational framework for health information technology. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 82(4), e1?e13.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight results of a literature review on the implementation of health information technology and the related theories and models. Based on their research, the authors developed a framework of key areas that provides a structure to organize and capture information on the use of health IT.

Mohamed, A. H., Tawfik, H. M., Al-Jumeily, D., & Norton, L. (2011). MoHTAM: A Technology Acceptance Model for mobile health applications. Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE) Conference, 13?18.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight a model they developed to determine how the decision to use a mobile health application is influenced by the design of the technology, the perceived ease of using it, and the perceived usefulness of the technology.

Diffusion of Innovations

Barnett, J., Vasileiou, K., Djemil, F., Brooks, L., & Young, T. (2011). Understanding innovators? experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: A qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 342.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

In this article, the authors describe the experiences of innovators in the medical field and the barriers that they have experienced in the implementation and diffusion of health care service innovations.

Kaissi, A. (2012). ?Learning? from other industries: Lessons and challenges for health care organizations. Health Care Manager, 31(1), 65?74.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this paper, the author explores how diffusion of innovations occurs in a variety of different industries and how these lessons can be adapted for use in the health care industries.

Thakur, R., Hsu, S. H. Y., & Fontenot, G. (2012). Innovation in healthcare: Issues and future trends. Journal of Business Research, 65(4), 562?569.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The medical field is a constantly evolving and improving. This article explores important innovations in the health care industry while highlighting certain issues and trends that may affect the future of the field.

Dickinson, A. D., & Scott, M. (2012). Diffusion of innovations in the National Health Service: A case study investigating the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In UK Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) 17th Annual Conference, 27?28 March 2012, New College, Oxford. Retrieved from http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/6223/2/UKAIS_2012_paperDD_MS.pdf

This article examines a case study that focuses on the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In particular, the study highlights how new users adopt the system.

Valente, T. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1995). The origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm as an example of scientific growth. Science Communication, 16(3), 242?273.

Copyright 1995 by Sage Publications Inc. Reprinted by permission of RISage Publications Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

In this article, Valente and Rogers explore the origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm. Through examining the different stages, it is possible to better understand how innovations are spread, accepted, and adopted within a health care organization.

Disruptive Innovation

Christensen, C. M., Bohmer, R., & Kenagy, J. (2000). Will disruptive innovations cure health care? Harvard Business Review, 78(5), 102?112.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

The health care field is constantly in need of new technologies to fill specific needs and niches. In this article, the authors discuss the role disruptive innovations could play in the development of the needed technologies.

Dhar, M., Griffin, M., Hollin, I., & Kachnowski, S. (2012). Innovation spaces: Six strategies to inform health care. Health Care Manager, 31(2), 166?177.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors use the disruptive innovation model as the framework to examine how innovation occurs in health care organizations. They determined six strategies to encourage innovation: dedicated times, formal teams, outside ideas, idea-sharing platforms, company/job goals, and incentives.

Poll, W. (2011). Derision is the sweet spot of adoption: Unleashing disruptive growth. Hospital Topics, 89(1), 23?25.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

It is common that many people look at change and new technologies with a hint of disdain or distrust. The author of this article discusses how new ideas and disruptive innovations can be effectively presented to a somewhat hesitant organizations.

Sociotechnical Theory Models

Ancker, J. S., Kern, L. M., Abramson, E., & Kaushal, R. (2012). The Triangle Model for evaluating the effect of health information technology on healthcare quality and safety. Journal of American Medical Informatics Associations, 19(1), 61?65.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explain the Triangle Model for designing studies on the safety and quality outcomes of health information technology projects. The article focuses on the predictors of the model, including attributes of the technology in question, the technology provider, the organizational setting, and the population involved.

Currie, L., Sheehan, B., Graham, P., Stetson, P., Cato, K., & Wilcox, A. (2009). Sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal ICU. Studies In Health Technology and Informatics, (146), 258?262.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of sociotechnical theory. The authors also describe the results of a sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal intensive care unit.

Molleman, E., & Broekhuis, M. (2001). Sociotechnical systems: Towards an organizational learning approach. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 18(3), 271?294.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explore the application of sociotechnical systems (STS) theory for designing work processes to improve organizational performance. The authors examine the application of STS with four organizational performance indicators: price, quality, flexibility, and innovation.

Scott-Findlay, S., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2006). Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 498?513.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides an empirical review of the nursing literature on organizational culture and its influence on practitioners.

As part of this course, you will be developing an evaluation plan based on an appropriate model. For this Assignment, you will examine in depth the four models introduced in this weeks Learning Resources (Technology Acceptance, Model Diffusion of Innovations, Disruptive Innovation, Sociotechnical Theory Models). By increasing your familiarity with these key models, you will more easily recognize which would be most appropriate for the evaluation you decide to perform.
To prepare:
Review the four research models covered in this week?s Learning Resources.
Consider the key points of each and when they would be the most appropriate choice for an evaluation.
To complete this Assignment:
By Thursday 12/22/2016 by 5pm,
1) Create graphic representations of the four models, including descriptions of each overall model, key components, who was involved in their development, key ways they have been used, and potential uses in health informatics.
2) These representations will be for your use in your upcoming course project, so the greater the detail, the more useful these representations will be to you.
3) Potential formats could include but are not limited to tables, mind maps, Venn diagrams, or concept maps.
P.S. include an introduction and a summary. The introduction must end with a purpose statement (e.g. ?The purpose of this paper is to ?? ) in APA format.
Use the references listed in the instructions area for this assignment.
Thank you!

Required Readings

Technology Acceptance Model

Kowitlawakul, Y. (2011). The Technology Acceptance Model: Predicting nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology (eICU). Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 29(7), 411?418.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Nurses encounter a variety of technological tools that are used in their field. This article explores the technology acceptance model and how it applies to nurses? intention to use telemedicine technology.

Pai, F.-Y., & Huang, K. (2011). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to the introduction of healthcare information systems. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(4), 650?660.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article focuses on the attempt to develop a model that will assist nurses in mastering the use of health information technology (HIT), thus enabling them to spend more time on patient care and less on clerical-type duties. The authors also studied how the use of HIT could increase patient safety.

Rippen, H. E., Pan, E. C., Russell, C., Byrne, C. M., & Swift, E. K. (2013). Organizational framework for health information technology. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 82(4), e1?e13.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight results of a literature review on the implementation of health information technology and the related theories and models. Based on their research, the authors developed a framework of key areas that provides a structure to organize and capture information on the use of health IT.

Mohamed, A. H., Tawfik, H. M., Al-Jumeily, D., & Norton, L. (2011). MoHTAM: A Technology Acceptance Model for mobile health applications. Developments in E-systems Engineering (DeSE) Conference, 13?18.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors highlight a model they developed to determine how the decision to use a mobile health application is influenced by the design of the technology, the perceived ease of using it, and the perceived usefulness of the technology.

Diffusion of Innovations

Barnett, J., Vasileiou, K., Djemil, F., Brooks, L., & Young, T. (2011). Understanding innovators? experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: A qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 342.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

In this article, the authors describe the experiences of innovators in the medical field and the barriers that they have experienced in the implementation and diffusion of health care service innovations.

Kaissi, A. (2012). ?Learning? from other industries: Lessons and challenges for health care organizations. Health Care Manager, 31(1), 65?74.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this paper, the author explores how diffusion of innovations occurs in a variety of different industries and how these lessons can be adapted for use in the health care industries.

Thakur, R., Hsu, S. H. Y., & Fontenot, G. (2012). Innovation in healthcare: Issues and future trends. Journal of Business Research, 65(4), 562?569.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The medical field is a constantly evolving and improving. This article explores important innovations in the health care industry while highlighting certain issues and trends that may affect the future of the field.

Dickinson, A. D., & Scott, M. (2012). Diffusion of innovations in the National Health Service: A case study investigating the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In UK Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) 17th Annual Conference, 27?28 March 2012, New College, Oxford. Retrieved from http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/6223/2/UKAIS_2012_paperDD_MS.pdf

This article examines a case study that focuses on the implementation of an electronic patient record system in a UK secondary care trust. In particular, the study highlights how new users adopt the system.

Valente, T. W., & Rogers, E. M. (1995). The origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm as an example of scientific growth. Science Communication, 16(3), 242?273.

Copyright 1995 by Sage Publications Inc. Reprinted by permission of RISage Publications Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

In this article, Valente and Rogers explore the origins and development of the diffusion of innovations paradigm. Through examining the different stages, it is possible to better understand how innovations are spread, accepted, and adopted within a health care organization.

Disruptive Innovation

Christensen, C. M., Bohmer, R., & Kenagy, J. (2000). Will disruptive innovations cure health care? Harvard Business Review, 78(5), 102?112.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

The health care field is constantly in need of new technologies to fill specific needs and niches. In this article, the authors discuss the role disruptive innovations could play in the development of the needed technologies.

Dhar, M., Griffin, M., Hollin, I., & Kachnowski, S. (2012). Innovation spaces: Six strategies to inform health care. Health Care Manager, 31(2), 166?177.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors use the disruptive innovation model as the framework to examine how innovation occurs in health care organizations. They determined six strategies to encourage innovation: dedicated times, formal teams, outside ideas, idea-sharing platforms, company/job goals, and incentives.

Poll, W. (2011). Derision is the sweet spot of adoption: Unleashing disruptive growth. Hospital Topics, 89(1), 23?25.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

It is common that many people look at change and new technologies with a hint of disdain or distrust. The author of this article discusses how new ideas and disruptive innovations can be effectively presented to a somewhat hesitant organizations.

Sociotechnical Theory Models

Ancker, J. S., Kern, L. M., Abramson, E., & Kaushal, R. (2012). The Triangle Model for evaluating the effect of health information technology on healthcare quality and safety. Journal of American Medical Informatics Associations, 19(1), 61?65.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explain the Triangle Model for designing studies on the safety and quality outcomes of health information technology projects. The article focuses on the predictors of the model, including attributes of the technology in question, the technology provider, the organizational setting, and the population involved.

Currie, L., Sheehan, B., Graham, P., Stetson, P., Cato, K., & Wilcox, A. (2009). Sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal ICU. Studies In Health Technology and Informatics, (146), 258?262.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of sociotechnical theory. The authors also describe the results of a sociotechnical analysis of a neonatal intensive care unit.

Molleman, E., & Broekhuis, M. (2001). Sociotechnical systems: Towards an organizational learning approach. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 18(3), 271?294.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

The authors of this article explore the application of sociotechnical systems (STS) theory for designing work processes to improve organizational performance. The authors examine the application of STS with four organizational performance indicators: price, quality, flexibility, and innovation.

Scott-Findlay, S., & Estabrooks, C. A. (2006). Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(5), 498?513.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article provides an empirical review of the nursing literature on organizational culture and its influence on practitioners.

A comparison of sample populations

submit a summary of six of your articles on the discussion board. Discuss one strength and one weakness to each of these six articles on why they may or may not provide sufficient evidence for your practice change.
DQ 2 : Name two difference methods for evaluating evidence. Compare and contrast these two methods
Assignment
Review the PICO(T) resources listed in the topic readings.
Formulate a PICOT statement using the PICOT format used in the assigned readings. The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your Capstone Project.
In a paper of 500-750 words, clearly identify the clinical problem (from your Topic 1 approved Change Proposal) and how it can result in a positive patient outcome.
Make sure to address the following on the PICOT statement:
1. Evidence-Based Solution
2. Nursing Intervention
3. Patient Care
4. Health Care Agency
5. Nursing Practice
Recall that a PICOT starts with a designated patient population in a particular clinical area and identifies clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care. The intervention should be an independent, specified nursing change intervention. The intervention cannot require a provider prescription or equipment change. Include a comparison to a patient population not currently receiving the intervention, and specify the timeframe needed to implement the change process.
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

DQ 1 After discussion with your mentor, name one financial, one quality, and one clinical aspect that needs to be taken into account for developing the evidence-based practice project. For each aspect, explain how your proposal will directly and indirectly impact each of the aspects.
DQ 2 Access and review the “Capstone Project Topic Selection, Rationale, and Approval” assignment from Topic 1. Now that you have completed a series of assignments that have led you into the active project planning and development stage for your project, take your discussion a step further and briefly describe your proposed solution to address the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need. How has this changed since you first envisioned it, and what led to your current perspective and direction?
Assignment
An implementation plan prepares students to apply the research they have identified and vetted to the problem or issue they have identified for their Capstone Change Proposal Project. A literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the Project.
In this assignment students will develop a 750-1,000-word literature review in which to synthesize what is known and unknown about the Project issue selected. Students will use the information from the PICOT Statement and Evaluation Table assignments prior in the course to develop a planned approach to implementing the evidence-based practice solution. The underlying purpose of this assignment is to analyze how the current research supports the PICOT, and to identify what is known and what is not known in the evidence, providing a logical, constructive argument.
Include the following sections:
1. Title page
2. Introduction section
3. A comparison of research questions
4. A comparison of sample populations
5. A comparison of the limitations of the study
6. A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research