Answer the following questions. Your answers must be concise and no longer than 1 paragraph in length (100 words).
Ms. Mayer has been brought to the emergency department after sustaining a head injury during a cycling collision.
During the physical exam, you note that a clear fluid is leaking from her nose. What is this fluid likely to be? (1 Mark)
Which bone has likely been fractured? (Hint: Which bone forms part of the cranial and nasal cavities?) (1 Mark)
Why would this cause fluid leakage from the nasal cavity? (2 Marks)
Ms. Mayer is reporting vision problems. An x-ray of her skull shows a fracture of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone. Why could this interfere with her vision? (2 Marks)
Mrs Scrolls is admitted to the coronary care unit with an anterior-wall myocardial infarction due to an obstruction in the left anterior descending and circumflex artery. Her temperature is now 38.1°C. She is diaphoretic and also feels lethargic.
What are the physiological mechanisms behind Mrs Scrolls’ signs and symptoms? (7 Marks)
The disorder hypogammaglobulinemia is characterised by a decrease in the secretion of one or more classes of antibody. Predict the effect of decreased secretion of:
IgA (1 Mark)
IgG (1 Mark)
IgG in a pregnant female (1 Mark)
IgM (1 Mark)
NSC1103D/SCH1143D 2 Assignment
The antibiotic medication Ticarcillin is not effective if given by mouth because nearly the entire dose of the drug is destroyed by the hepatic portal system. However, this drug is effective when injected into the bloodstream. Explain. (3 Marks)
Mr Wilms has been diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by the loss of plasma proteins such as albumin into the urine.
What impact will this have on his colloid osmotic pressure? (Hint: Colloid osmotic pressure is the osmotic pressure gradient). (1 Mark)
How will this affect the net filtration pressure in his capillary beds? (1 Mark)
What effect will this likely cause? (2 Marks)
Melvin Gartner has been admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pneumonia. You note that the passages of his respiratory tract can become filled with mucus.
What impact will this have on the effectiveness of his pulmonary ventilation? Explain. (1 Mark)
He also developed pulmonary oedema, a condition in which fluid accumulates in and around alveoli and increases surface tension. What impact will this have on the effectiveness of his pulmonary ventilation? Explain. (3 Marks)
Mr Gartner is given pulmonary function tests and the following values are obtained: • Tidal Volume = 400mL • Inspiratory Reserve Volume = 3050mL • Expiratory Reserve Volume = 650mL
Calculate his Inspiratory Capacity and Vital Capacity. (2 Marks)
Are his values normal? (2 Marks